The 4 major components of the lithium-ion battery


Definition of broad, as long as the ions that work in the electrolyte is "lithium", it can be called "lithium-ion battery."
What is the working principle of a "lithium-ion battery" and What are the common materials inside?
The following will discuss the based on the current application of materials on the market.

The working principle of lithium-ion battery

Looking back on the development and application of lithium-ion batteries in the past 40 years, from wearable devices to electric vehicles, from communication base stations to space stations, all kinds of lithium-ion batteries of different sizes and weights are connected with our lives. The lithium-ion battery is an epoch-making invention, and its emergence quickly promotes the evolution of civilization and technology. And how is "electricity" obtained through the internal reaction of lithium-ion batteries?

The working principle of lithium-ion batteries can be explained in terms of charge state and discharge state. As its name, lithium-ion batteries use the transfer of "lithium" ions to complete the charge/discharge circuit.

In the charged state:

To achieve energy storage, Lithium ions will be released from the positive electrode that has lithium-containing. At this time, the lithium ions use the electrolyte as a transmission medium to diffusion and through the separator and then embed into the negative electrode material that can receive lithium ions.

*Picture 1: The working principle of the lithium-ion battery: Charge state.

In the discharge state:

The lithium ions will released from the negative electrode, and use the electrolyte as a transmission medium to diffusion and through the separator, and then return to the positive electrode.

*Picture 2: The working principle of the lithium-ion battery: Discharge state.

Therefore, we can be driven by charge/discharge actions during the limited cycle life of the various types of lithium-ion battery devices.

Further reading: The future development trend of the lithium-ion battery market.

Except for the positive electrode, does the electrolyte contain the element lithium?

The four major components of the lithium-ion battery were Cathode, Anode, Separator, and Electrolyte, respectively. The materials and characteristics of each component widely used in the market are summarized as follows:


A conductive aluminum foil is usually used as a current collector, and then a metal-oxide is containing "lithium" is coated with a solvent, a binder, a conductive agent, and add a little conductive material. The cycle life of lithium-ion batteries is closely related to the material used in the positive electrode. Studies have shown that if lithium iron phosphate is used as the main positive electrode material, the battery cycle life is estimated to reach 30,000 times; If you choose to use the ternary system (Ni-Mn-Co NMC/Ni-Mn-Al NCA), only a few thousand times. There are many development potentials and opportunities for the positive electrode process. For example, The introduction of additives that can improve battery safety into the positive electrode process. It is one of the focuses of the future development of the lithium-ion battery industry.

Further reading: Why use the Additives for Lithium-Ion Batteries?


As the advantages of stable cost and high safety, up to 90% of lithium-ion batteries on the market use graphite as the anode material. In the lithium-ion battery market (such as smartphones, Tesla, Gogoro, etc.) gradually pursuing the development trend of high capacity, many research teams have invested in the development of silicon-based anode materials based on silicon or silicon oxide in order to improve the energy density of the battery.


The microporous film made of polypropylene (PP)/polyethylene (PE) and other plastics, placed between the positive and negative plates to block the positive and negative electrodes to avoid battery self-discharge and short-circuit between the two poles problem. The separator is full of dense micropores, in order to make lithium ions can through, allowing the battery to form a complete charge and discharge circuit.


As a medium for the transfer of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes, the common main components of lithium-ion battery electrolytes, including EC, DMC, and PC, etc., as an extremely important role in the performance of lithium-ion batteries. If you want to improve the battery cycle life, safety, and lithium-ion transmission characteristics, you can start to improve the electrolyte formulation and electrolyte additives. Proper lithium-ion battery electrolyte can maximize the performance of lithium-ion batteries.


Why choose HOPAX

Since 2008, HOPAX following the market trend of "high capacitance" has been successfully developed a series of lithium-ion battery additives and electrolytes, It has obtained a number of invention patents and particularly famous for its high-nickel electrolyte formulations and silicon-oxygen electrolyte formulations. HOPAX also provides customized services, which can adjust and optimize formulas according to customer product attributes, material characteristics, and application scenarios. HOPAX's professional and sophisticated R&D team, through the cooperation with professionals from all walks of life, its R&D direction is more innovative and close to market demand. The product quality and service have also been praised by customers. HOPAX also takes the safety of end-users as its mission. It is committed to developing additive formulations that can improve the safety of batteries. As a lithium-ion battery expert, don’t hesitate to let HOPAX work with you! Let us move towards a new generation of lithium-ion batteries together!!

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Release date:2021.02.08