The characteristics of Detergents

Detergents are amphipathic molecules, It has the following characteristics.

  • Has an aliphatic or aromatic character
  • Contains either a polar "head" and a nonpolar "tail".
  • Can manipulate of hydrophobic–hydrophilic.

 

Properties and types of detergents

We can classification of detergents by the ionic character of the polar head group and separate them into 3 categories.

1) Ionic Detergents

  • It has a hydrophilic head group
  • The head group can be either negatively (anionic) or positively (cationic) charged.
  • It is used for the complete disruption of cellular structures and the denaturation of proteins for separation during gel electrophoresis.

2) Nonionic Detergents

  • It has a hydrophilic head group
  • The head group is uncharged
  • It has the ability to break lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions.
  • It is used for isolate biologically active membrane proteins.
  • It also referred to as non-denaturing detergents.

3) Zwitterionic Detergents

  • It has both positively and negatively charged groups but with a net charge of zero.
  • It has a neutral net charge.
  • It is used for the complete disruption of cellular structures and the denaturation of proteins for separation during gel electrophoresis.
  • It has the ability to breaking protein-protein bonds while maintaining the native state and charge of the individual proteins.
  • Its versatility is useful for a variety of purposes, such as chromatography, electrophoresis, 2D gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and solubilization of organelles and inclusion bodies.

 

Properties of common detergents

Type
Detergent
CAS NO.
CMC (mM)
Cloud point
HLB
Ionic
CTAB
57-09-0
1mM
-
-
Ionic
SDS
151-21-3
7-10 mM
>100 °C
40
Nonionic
NP-40
9016-45-9
0.05-0.3 mM
>100 °C
17.8
Nonionic
Triton X-100
9002-93-1
0.2-0.9 mM
65°C
13.5
Nonionic
DDM
69227-93-6
0.17mM
-
0.15
Zwitterionic
CHAPS
75621-03-3
6 mM
>100 °C
-
Zwitterionic
CHAPSO
82473-24-3
8 mM
90 °C
-
Zwitterionic
SB-8
15178-76-4
330 mM
-
-
Zwitterionic
SB-10
15163-36-7
25-40 mM
-
-
Zwitterionic
SB-12
14933-08-5
2-4 mM
-
-
Zwitterionic
SB-14
14933-09-6
0.1-0.4 mM
-
-
Zwitterionic
SB-16
14933-09-6
0.1-0.4 mM
-
-
Zwitterionic
SB-18
13177-41-8
-
-
-
Zwitterionic
NDSB-195
160255-06-1
-
-
-
Zwitterionic
NDSB-201
15471-17-7
-
-
-
Zwitterionic
NDSB-211
38880-58-9
-
-
-
Zwitterionic
LHSB
13197-76-7
-
-
-

*Table1:Detergent select table.

 

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Further reading:What is the critical micelle concentration (CMC)?

Further reading:

/6 biological buffers recommended for protein purification
發佈日期:2020.10.13